By by Carl Robert Whitehead.
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Additional resources for A reference grammar of Menya : an Angan language of Papua New Guinea
The second instance in (47) is therefore unusual and the expected p« m«th would be acceptable in that context. 2 Demonstrative pronouns For reference to a ‘third person’ as opposed to one of the speech act participants, the personal pronouns given above are rarely used, to the extent that they are not even mentioned in Jordan’s 1963 manuscript. Instead, pronominal forms based on the demonstrative roots are used. These roots are displayed in Table 10, where the asterisk33 indicates that the root is a bound form and, therefore, cannot stand alone.
The different-referent medials, on the other hand, are more explicit regarding the temporal or logical relationship that exists between the propositions being encoded. 4 and 5. 2, are also used within a sentence in various ways. 1) but they are also used within the sentence ‘frame’ which was described above as setting the context within which the asserted portion of the sentence pertains (. 2). 4). 5). 3, the Menya verb in almost all its forms indicates the person and number of the ACTOR (which is generally also the SUBJECT).
As can be seen in examples (17) and (18) above, there is no case marking on any of the NPs labelled as S or O. There actor. Reesink (1983), Roberts (1988 and 1997) and Stirling (1993) are among the many to have addressed the issue of what is being tracked. 19 Though the terminology and definitions vary, Halliday (1994) and Givon (1984) both recognize a clause level topic as well as a higher level topical or thematic entity. 20 In the sentence ‘I moved across the room’ the speaker is both performing and being affected by the event; this is also true of reflexive predications.
A reference grammar of Menya : an Angan language of Papua New Guinea by by Carl Robert Whitehead.