By Alan Timberlake
This textbook describes and systematizes all facets of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, notice order, and intonation. it truly is particularly taken with the which means of combos of phrases (constructions) and the center inspiration is that of the predicate heritage (a checklist of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the e-book provides an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and element. it's going to attract scholars, students and language execs attracted to Russian.
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Additional info for A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)
The vowel [†] has a generally similar behavior, except that its natural value for F2 is higher than with [ƒ o⁄ u]⁄ . C o VC o : After a hard consonant before a hard consonant, as in v…h ‘mayor’ [m†r], ;tcn ‘gesture’ [z†st], [†] is a relatively open mid ‹ front vowel, with F1 on the order of 600--700 Hz and F2 approximately 1600--1800 33 34 A Reference Grammar of Russian Fig. 2 vƒnm ‘mother’ [ma5t˛⁄ ] Fig. 3 vz´n ‘crumpled’ [ m˛a 5 t] ⁄ Sounds Fig. 5 [É] in initial position, as in …´nj ‘this’ [†t´], is similarly open.
It is used after preﬁxes before a soft-vowel letter (≤j,(zcyzk≥ ‘explained’, ≤c(tcnm≥ ‘eat up’) and in some borrowings (≤j,(trn≥ ‘object’, ≤rjy(/yrnehf≥ ‘conﬁguration’). It is a boundary grapheme, indicating that the following soft-vowel letter is to be read as if it began a word -- that is, ﬁrst comes the consonant (which may or may not be pronounced as palatalized), then [j], then the vowel: ≤jn(tpl≥ [ t˛j†st] ∼ [ to j†st]. The “soft sign” ≤m≥ has greater utility. When no vowel letter follows, ≤m≥ indicates that a preceding mutable consonant is palatalized.
Because [ó] and [u]⁄ have lower values of F2 , the rise of F2 is quite precipitous in anticipation of the palatalized consonant of j vj´lt ‘about fashion’ [ mj´öd˛ ì], ,éhz ‘storm’ [bu5r˛⁄ ´]. C O N T E XT 3: C ¸ VC o : In the third context -- after a soft consonant before hard, as in vz´n ‘crumpled’ [m˛a5t]⁄ (Fig. 3) -- F2 in the initial transition rises very quickly from the previous labial to an early peak of more than 2000 Hz, and then dips to a minimum after the vowel’s midpoint, rising slightly at the end in anticipation of the ﬁnal hard dental.
A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars) by Alan Timberlake