By Ranko Matasović

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34 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian eat", thaśən "to wash (something)" and thaśan "to wash", xən "to reap (something)" and xan "to reap", śəpən "to collect (something)" and śəpan "to collect", ś'ən "to do" and ś'an "to know", ł'ən "to kill" and ł'an "to die"39. g. the suffix -hə-, cf. q'afa-n "to dance" (intransitive), q'afə-hə-n "to dance (a dance around something)" (transitive). g. the verbs hə-n "to carry" and ś'ə-n "to do" are always transitive. If we assume that the basic form of the verb is the one with final stem morpheme -a-, while the form with the morpheme -ə- is derived, then a large majority of Kabardian languages are intransitive.

Also, the order of personal prefixes can be expressed like this42: I: lowest ranking macrorole; II: non-macrorole core argument; III: other macrorole (with transitive verbs this will always be the Actor). -af. In RRG terms, the case assignment rule is completely identical for transitive and intransitive verbs: the lowest ranking macrorole is assigned the nominative case, while all other verb arguments (in this case the indirect object) are assigned the ergative case. Also, the order of verbal prefixes is the same as with transitive verbs: I: the lowest-ranking macrorole (with intransitive verbs this is also the only macrorole); II: non-macrorole core argument; III: other macrorole (this position is not realized with intransitive verbs, since they only have one macrorole).

From the point of view of the abovementioned case assignment rules these verbs present no problem, because their only (and thus also the lowest ranking) macrorole is marked for the Nominative case. e. -af. e. it cannot appear in the form *thamāda-r)43. e. -af. -af. -watch-pl. sa s-aw-płā "I am watching" 1sg. -af. Some intransitive verbs have an "integrated" marker for the 3rd person object; they are "bipersonal" (Rus. dvuxličnye)44, but their indirect object (oblique argument) is always in the 3rd person singular.

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A Short Grammar of Kabardian by Ranko Matasović

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