By Eric Burgeat, Stefan Tangermann
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Extra resources for Agricultural and Rural Development Policies in the Baltic Countries (Emerging Economies Transition)
5 The profit from individual professional work also contains the self-produced food products converted to monetary value. Other incomes include property income and other income. T pr) Statistical Office of Estonia. 5% in 2002. About half of the income from individual work comes from agricultural and forest activities, 70% of the increments are pension, and about 10% is child support. &RPSDULVRQ RI WKH VWUXFWXUH RI WKH LQFRPHV RI D PHPEHU RI UXUDO DQG WRZQ KRXVHKROG While looking at Tables 2 and 3 it can bee seen that the number of town households during the years 1996-2002 has been on average 63% larger than the number of rural households.
Such direct income payments minimise economic distortions and distributive leakages because their effects on production decisions are minimal, and they can be targeted and delivered to those households that are deemed to warrant assistance. More generally, government could invest in general services for the sector, such as expenditures on infrastructure, training, research and development, that improve the functioning of agricultural markets and allow farmers to increase their competitiveness. Low income may be experienced by farm households that are resource-poor and located in areas where there is also a problem of lack of viable economic alternatives.
A. a. c. c. c. a. a. : not available. : not computable because of negative averages for some quartiles. See Diagram 1 for a definition of income indicators. The Gini coefficient (Ig) is calculated asÃ Ig ¦¦ | x i i xj | j 2n(n 1)x m ÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃÃfor i = 1 to n and j = 1 to n where xi and xj are the average of group i and group j respectively, and xm is the average of the whole population. The greater the inequality, the higher the coefficient. When based on individual data and when all observations are positive, the Gini coefficient ranges from 0 to 1.
Agricultural and Rural Development Policies in the Baltic Countries (Emerging Economies Transition) by Eric Burgeat, Stefan Tangermann