By J. M. G. Cowie (auth.), J. M. G. Cowie (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1475791399

ISBN-13: 9781475791396

ISBN-10: 1475791410

ISBN-13: 9781475791419

Examination of the early literature attests to the truth that the learn of copolymerization used to be initiated while polymer technological know-how was once in its infancy. It has persevered to develop to an issue of significant value and has been a resource of curiosity to either educational and industrialist alike. The broad spectrum of buildings and homes to be had within the statistical copolymer has made this a fruitful box of exploration, yet one specific and extra constrained shape which has held its personal fascination for plenty of is the restricting case of the strictly alternating copolymer. this can be shaped, within the perfect scenario, whilst monomers in a response blend upload consecutively to create a polymer chain with a standard {ABABAB} constitution, without reference to the monomer feed ratio. whilst this occurs the ensuing copolymer will regularly have a similar composition, a characteristic which are valuable but additionally a bit of restrictive, because the skill to alter the homes is then constrained. inside of a chain entitled Speciality Polymers it kind of feels applicable then to accommodate this topic, relatively as no earlier try out has been made to attract jointly some of the aspects of alternating copolymerization into one quantity. It additionally turns out well timed to provide a extra unified photograph of the topic in an effort to additionally illustrate the development made.

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Cowie 42 0 N It) 1·5 1·0 X= [ Mt 1JlM2) 0·5 0 Figure 13. Plot of G(X)/ X against X for the copolymerization of N-vinyl carbazole and diethyl fumarate. (From Ref. ) is a noncompetitive solvent and does not tend to complex with the monomers so the data are consistent with this observation. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that while a large K can be interpreted to suggest that the participation of the CTC will be high, the reaction rate will also depend on the rate constant as well as the concentration and so the K value is not always an accurate indicator.

P can be defined as the ratio of the rate at which any one of the substrates (monomers or complex) adds to a given chain end, 51 Radical Initiated Alternating Copolymerization over the sum of the rates at which all of the substrates add to the same chain end. The reactivities were defined as follows: P _ kssM s- ksMS ' = ksMs S s ksM and the copolymer composition is given by expressed using the transition probabilities P, which are functions of the reactivity ratios and the equilibrium constant for complex formation.

Equation (39) can be used to estimate {3 1 and {3 2 ; if both are zero then copolymerization proceeds exclusively by the free monomer mechanism, whereas large values for both indicate a substantial participation of the CTC. 0, {3 2 = 0 were obtained. This has been interpreted as participation of both free monomer and CTC, but shows that the CTC will not add onto a growing chain terminated by a vinyl acetate unit and that it will add onto a maleic anhydride macroradical faster than the free vinyl acetate monomer.

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Alternating Copolymers by J. M. G. Cowie (auth.), J. M. G. Cowie (eds.)

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