By Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva
The subsequent beneficial properties of research and layout of Quadrature Oscillators make it diverse from the prevailing literature on digital oscillators: specialize in quadrature oscillators with exact quadrature and occasional phase-noise, required by means of smooth conversation structures; an in depth comparative examine of quadrature LC and RC oscillators, together with cross-coupled LC quasi-sinusoidal oscillators, cross-coupled RC rest oscillators, a quadrature RC oscillator-mixer, and two-integrator oscillators; a radical research of the influence of mismatches at the phase-error and the phase-noise; the belief that quadrature RC oscillators could be a sensible replacement to LC oscillators while quarter and value might be minimized (in cross-coupled RC oscillators either the quadrature-error and phase-noise are decreased, while in LC oscillators the coupling raises the phase-noise); use of a based layout strategy, during which a expertise autonomous examine, with excellent blocks, is played at first, after which the circuit point layout is addressed; and inclusion of many experimental effects, received from varied built-in circuit prototypes, within the GHz variety.
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Extra info for Analysis And Design Of Quadrature Oscillators
Conventional mixers have an open-loop structure, in which the output is obtained by the multiplication of a local oscillator signal and an input signal (RF signal, in the receiver path). For quadrature modulation and demodulation two independent mixers are required, which imposes severe constrains on the matching of circuit components. The integration of the mixing function in quadrature oscillators has the advantage of relaxing these constraints, as will be shown in Chapter 4 of this book. In this section we review the most important characteristics of mixers: noise figure, second and third order intermodulation points, 1-dB compression point, gain, input and output impedance, and isolation between ports.
V. 2008 37 38 3 Quadrature Relaxation Oscillator we only show how the quadrature relaxation oscillator will react to mismatches (by changing the amplitudes) in order to preserve an accurate quadrature relationship. The second part of this chapter is dedicated to the study of the oscillator phasenoise. We identify the oscillator noise sources and we analyse the phase-noise of single relaxation oscillators. The analysis of cross-coupled oscillators is rather complicated, but a simple qualitative argument indicates that the coupling reduces the phase-noise (as opposed to what happens in coupled LC oscillators).
2 Phase-noise in Quadrature Relaxation Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction This chapter is dedicated to the study of quadrature relaxation oscillators, which consist of two cross-coupled RC relaxation oscillators . In this book we will use interchangeably the designations cross-coupled relaxation oscillator and quadrature relaxation oscillator. Both single relaxation oscillators and the technique of synchronously coupling relaxation oscillators have been known for some time [8–10, 44, 47–51], but their research is still at an initial stage.
Analysis And Design Of Quadrature Oscillators by Luis B. Oliveira, Jorge R. Fernandes, Igor M. Filanovsky, Chris J. M. Verhoeven, Manuel M. Silva