By Gunter Weiss, Victor R. Gordeuk, Chaim Hershko
This publication summarizes the most up-tp-date learn at the anemia of power illness and identifies powerful diagnostic options for this universal scientific condition-covering key themes on the topic of the layout and choice of healing ideas together with the therapy of the underlying disorder, the biology of erythropoietin and the rules of erythropoiesis, the disturbance of iron homeostasis, and the complicated nature of the systemic inflammatory reaction.
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Extra resources for Anemia of Chronic Disease (Basic and Clinical Oncology)
Thus, nonerythroid cells also synthesize heme, albeit in significantly lower amounts. The heme moiety is essential for oxygen binding and serves as oxygen carrier in hemoglobin and myoglobin and as oxygen activator in oxygenases (for example, in cytochrome oxidase and cytochrome P450) or H2O2 activator in peroxidases (for example, in catalase). As a constituent of cytochromes a, b, and c, heme participates in electron transfer reactions during aerobic respiration. Heme is also involved in the sensing and biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) by the soluble guanylate cyclase and nitric oxide synthases (NOS), respectively.
5 of gestation (115). 5 is associated with severe defects in erythropoiesis and neurogenesis. Mice retaining a functional TfR1 allele (TfR1þ=À) develop hypochromic microcytic anemia due to iron deficiency. 5, the only route for iron uptake by erythroid cells. They also emphasize the importance of the Tf–TfR1 cycle in early embryonic development of the nervous system. The Tf-TfR cycle can be negatively modulated by HFE, because this protein forms complexes with TfR1 (116,117), which impair the capacity of TfR1 for iron uptake (117–119), possibly via competition for Tf binding (120).
POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF CELLULAR IRON METABOLISM BY THE IRE=IRP SYSTEM The expression of TfR1 and ferritin is controlled at the posttranscriptional level by the IRE=IRP system (160,161), which was first described in the late 1980s. The mRNAs encoding TfR1 and ferritin (both H- and L-chains) contain ‘‘iron responsive elements’’ (IREs) in their untranslated regions (UTRs). These are hairpin structures of about 30 nucleotides (Fig. 8), Figure 8 The IRE consensus motif. It consists of a hexanucleotide loop (50 -CAGUGN-30 ) and a stem, interrupted by a bulge with an unpaired C residue.
Anemia of Chronic Disease (Basic and Clinical Oncology) by Gunter Weiss, Victor R. Gordeuk, Chaim Hershko