By Geoffrey Nunberg

ISBN-10: 1610391756

ISBN-13: 9781610391757

It first surfaced within the gripes of GIs in the course of global conflict II and used to be captured early on by way of the typewriter of a tender Norman Mailer. inside a new release it had turn into a simple concept of our daily ethical lifestyles, changing older reproaches like lout and heel with a unmarried inclusive category––a staple of state outlaw songs, Neil Simon performs, and Woody Allen videos. Feminists made it their inventory rebuke for male insensitivity, the est flow used it in case you didn’t “get it,” and soiled Harry utilized it evenhandedly to either his officious superiors and the punks he manhandled.

The asshole has turn into a spotlight of collective fascination for us, simply because the phony used to be for Holden Caulfield and the cad used to be for Anthony Trollope. From Donald Trump to Ann Coulter, from Mel Gibson to Anthony Weiner, from the truth television prima donnas to the web trolls and flamers, assholism has develop into the attribute kind of smooth incivility, which implicitly expresses our private values approximately type, relationships, authenticity, and equity. we've got conflicting attitudes in regards to the A-word––when a presidential candidate unwittingly uttered it on a stay mic in 2000, it proven to a couple that he was once a guy of the folk and to others that he was once a boor. yet contemplating how a lot the be aware does for us, and to us, it hasn’t gotten approximately the eye it deserves––at least till now.

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2003. Words Derived from Old Norse in Early Middle English: Studies in the vocabulary of the South-West Midland texts. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. Dawson, Hope. 2003. “Defining the Outcome of Language Contact: Old English and Old Norse”. 40–57. Denison, David & Richard Hogg. 2006. “Overview”. A History of the English Language ed. by Richard Hogg & David Denison, 1–42. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Domingue, Nicole Z. 1977. 89–100. Downham, Clare.

Kastovsky, Dieter. 1992. “Semantics and Vocabulary”. The Cambridge History of the English ­Language: The Beginnings to 1066 ed. by Richard M. Hogg, Vol. I, 290–408. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kastovsky, Dieter. 2006. “Vocabulary”. A History of the English Language ed. by Richard Hogg & David Denison, 199–270. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Angelika Lutz Keller, Wolfgang. 1925. “Skandinavischer Einfluss in der englischen Flexion”. Probleme der ­englischen Sprache und Kultur: Festschrift Johannes Hoops zum 60.

32. See Bloomfield p. 464: “In all cases, however, it is the lower language which borrows ­predominantly from the upper language” (italics by Bloomfield). , p. 461). , p. ). And in his section on Old Norse influence, he noted that “the Scandinavian elements … do not conform to the type which an upper language leaves behind. , p. 469). 5) distinguishes two types of motivation for borrowing – ‘need’ and ‘prestige’. Hock’s examples for borrowing due to ‘need’ are typical cases of cultural borrowing in Bloomfield’s terms, namely words for concepts that have been found necessary or useful by speakers of the recipient language.

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Ascent of the A-Word: Assholism, the First Sixty Years by Geoffrey Nunberg

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