By Juan Pablo Alegre Pérez
This e-book analyzes computerized achieve regulate (AGC) loop circuits. the most target of this booklet is to illustrate AGC recommendations within the surroundings of instant receivers, often in instant receivers with stringent constraints in settling-time and large dynamic diversity, comparable to WLAN and Bluetooth receivers. in view that feedforward AGCs current nice merits during this context, instead to standard suggestions AGCs, this booklet features a particular examine of feedforward AGCs layout –at the extent of simple AGC cells, in addition to the process point, together with their major features and performance.
- Provides an entire evaluation of automated achieve keep watch over loops, overlaying either suggestions and feedforward methods;
- Describes the total layout stream of the most blocks utilized in AGC circuits (PGAs/VGAs, height detectors and keep watch over voltage iteration circuits), contemplating low-voltage low-power restrictions;
- Includes actual AGC architectures applied as a basic objective electronic feedforward CMOS AGC, a completely analogue feedforward AGC and a mixed feedforward/feedback CMOS AGC
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Additional info for Automatic Gain Control: Techniques and Architectures for RF Receivers
The choice of VGA main pole must be done considering input signal bandwidth and noise constraints. The pole must be high enough, so that the amplifier can manage the full input signal bandwidth. On the other hand, this pole cannot be chosen infinitely high as this is very power expensive and it would increase the noise introduced in the system. Thus, the usual choice is to match the VGA pole at the input signal highest frequency. One of the simplest ways to detect signal strength is to first rectify and next filter it.
9b) 2K1 Ibias1 , where K1 is the transconductance factor. Then, a small signal i2 from a second transconductor is added to the bias current Ibias1. 9b), and since i2â•›<<â•›Ibias1, applying the Taylor series approximation, the transconductance can be rewritten as 2K1 (Ibias1 + i2 ) √ . 8), i2(â†œt)â•› = â•›Gm2v2(â†œt). 10b) or where k1 = io (t) = k1 v2 (t)v1 (t) + k2 v1 (t), 2K1 K2 IIbias2 and k2 = bias1 2K1 I . 10c) 38 3â•… Basic AGC Cells Iout+ ¯ Gm1 v1 + i2 ¯ v2 Ibias1 Gm2 + io Vx+ Vx Vy ¯ ¯ v1 IL Gm1 + a ¯ Vx+ ¯ Vy+ i2 Ibias2 Iout b GND Fig.
If the way to vary the gain is considered, VGAs can be split into two main groups: Passive VGA and Active VGA. 1â•… Variable Gain Amplifiers vin a ¯ + Amp 31 vout vin ¯ + + OA vout ¯ b Fig. 1â†œæ¸€ a Programmable resistor and fixed gain amplifier based PGA and b high gain amplifier with resistor network feedback based PGA to achieve gain variation will be introduced; in the second group, gain variation is achieved by changing the transconductance of the amplifier. The main gain variation techniques will then be introduced according to this classification.
Automatic Gain Control: Techniques and Architectures for RF Receivers by Juan Pablo Alegre Pérez