By Brian M. Tissue
Chapter 1 Making Measurements (pages 1–52):
Chapter 2 pattern training, Extractions, and Chromatography (pages 53–102):
Chapter three Classical equipment (pages 103–140):
Chapter four Molecular Spectroscopy (pages 141–175):
Chapter five Acid?Base Equilibria and job (pages 177–220):
Chapter 6 Buffer ideas and Polyprotic Acids (pages 221–244):
Chapter 7 Complexation and Precipitation Equilibria (pages 245–291):
Chapter eight Electroanalytical Chemistry (pages 293–339):
Chapter nine Atomic Spectrometry (pages 340–366):
Chapter 10 Analytical Separations (pages 367–406):
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Extra resources for Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria
To correct the standard and unknown measurements, subtract the nonzero blank from each value. 45 mS/cm for the soil sample. There are two approaches to work with a proportionality: determine the sensitivity, a1 , or set up a simple ratio. The two calculations are equivalent, so use whichever is most intuitive for you. I will show the calculation ﬁrst by ﬁnding the sensitivity and then using it to ﬁnd the unknown concentration. 84 mS/cm g/l We could also plot the blank and standard data points and determine the unknown from the equation of the line.
4 Source of a systematic error. for sample collection, preparation, and measurement that produce accurate and repeatable results. Very often this work has been done by someone else and you are using one or more standard methods. When a standard method is not available, analysts usually start with a method for a similar type of sample and modify it to obtain good results. Method validation is the process to ensure that you are obtaining accurate and repeatable results. 165 (e):25 The accuracy, sensitivity, speciﬁcity, and reproducibility of test methods employed by the ﬁrm shall be established and documented.
The measurement using the one-point calibration has a large uncertainty due to extrapolating a calibration at a low weight to the higher weight range. It is good practice to use a standard that is similar to the unknown. An even better approach is to calibrate your measurement at multiple points throughout the CALIBRATION 33 expected measurement range. For analytes in solutions, we use standards at concentrations from zero to higher than we expect for the unknown solutions. The second point is that a calibration line is only as good as the standard(s) used to make it.
Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria by Brian M. Tissue