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1 v01/20/99 p02/12/99 THE TRADE ENVIRONMENT 1-15 Funds from such other sources as governments, commercial banks, export credit agencies, and other multilateral institutions are increasingly being paired with World Bank funds to cofinance projects. World Bank Affiliates IFC and MIGA The International Finance Corporation (IFC), an affiliate of the World Bank, is the world’s largest multilateral organization specifically structured to provide loans to — and equity investments in — private companies in the emerging markets.
However, it can derive fee income from transactions associated with funds transfer, foreign exchange (if required), and cash management. 1. CASH IN ADVANCE The seller receives cash from the buyer prior to shipment. Advantages BUYER n None Risks n Buyer has no control over goods Buyer loses use of funds paid to the seller Seller may refuse to, or be unable to, ship the goods Political risk in the seller’s country Seller’s commercial or credit risk n None n n n n SELLER n n CITIBANK n Ships goods when convenient Enjoys use of buyer’s funds Has minimal involvement in this payment option.
Multilateral agencies are international insurance agencies that provide capital to emerging market countries that compete for large export contracts. _____ d) Multilateral agencies provide funding to local companies that are just beginning to expand into foreign markets. ECAs provide low-cost, variable rate financing to foreign importers. 1 1-28 THE TRADE ENVIRONMENT ANSWER KEY Question 12: A small Guatemalan company is seeking financing to build a plant and purchase US equipment in order to export textile to the US.
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